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发布时间:2019-07-07 11:09

Lantern Festival
The 15th day of the 1st lunar month
The 15th day of the 1st lunar month is the Chinese Lantern Festival because the first lunar month is called yuan-month and in the ancient times people called night Xiao. The 15th day is the first night to see a full moon. So the day is also called Yuan Xiao Festival in China.

According to the Chinese tradition, at the very beginning of a new year, when there is a bright full moon hanging in the sky, there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate. At this time, people will try to solve the puzzles on the lanterns and eat yuanxiao (glutinous rice ball) and get all their families united in the joyful atmosphere.

History

Until the Sui Dynasty in the sixth century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colorful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala(节日的,庆祝的)performances.

By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the seventh century, the lantern displays would last three days. The emperor also lifted the curfew(宵禁令), allowing the people to enjoy the festive lanterns day and night. It is not difficult to find Chinese poems which describe this happy scene.

In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. Colorful glass and even jade were used to make lanterns, with figures from folk tales painted on the lanterns.

However, the largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15th century. The festivities continued for ten days. Emperor Chengzu had the downtown area set aside as a center for displaying the lanterns. Even today, there is a place in Beijing called Dengshikou. In Chinese, Deng means lantern and Shi is market. The area became a market where lanterns were sold during the day. In the evening, the local people would go there to see the beautiful lighted lanterns on display.

Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a big event on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. People enjoy the brightly lit night. Chengdu in Southwest China's Sichuan Province, for example, holds a lantern fair each year in the Cultural Park. During the Lantern Festival, the park is literally an ocean of lanterns! Many new designs attract countless visitors. The most eye-catching lantern is the Dragon Pole. This is a lantern in the shape of a golden dragon, spiraling up a 27-meter -high pole, spewing fireworks from its mouth. It is quite an impressive sight!

Origin

There are many different beliefs about the origin of the Lantern Festival. But one thing for sure is that it had something to do with religious worship.

One legend tells us that it was a time to worship Taiyi, the God of Heaven in ancient times. The belief was that the God of Heaven controlled the destiny of the human world. He had sixteen dragons at his beck and call and he decided when to inflict drought, storms, famine or pestilence(瘟疫)upon human beings. Beginning with Qinshihuang, the first emperor to unite the country, all subsequent emperors ordered splendid ceremonies each year. The emperor would ask Taiyi to bring favorable weather and good health to him and his people. Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty directed special attention to this event. In 104 BC, he proclaimed it one of the most important celebrations and the ceremony would last throughout the night.

Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with Taoism. Tianguan is the Taoist god responsible for good fortune. His birthday falls on the 15th day of the first lunar month. It is said that Tianguan likes all types of entertainment. So followers prepare various kinds of activities during which they pray for good fortune.

The third story about the origin of the festival is like this. Buddhism first entered China during the reign of Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty. That was in the first century. However, it did not exert any great influence among the Chinese people. one day, Emperor Mingdi had a dream about a gold man in his palace. At the very moment when he was about to ask the mysterious figure who he was, the gold man suddenly rose to the sky and disappeared in the west. The next day, Emperor Mingdi sent a scholar to India on a pilgrimage(朝圣)to locate Buddhist scriptures. After journeying thousands of miles, the scholar finally returned with the scriptures. Emperor Mingdi ordered that a temple be built to house a statue of Buddha and serve as a repository for the scriptures. Followers believe that the power of Buddha can dispel darkness. So Emperor Mingdi ordered his subjects to display lighted lanterns during what was to become the Lantern Festival.

Yuanxiao

Besides entertainment and beautiful lanterns, another important part of the Lantern Festival,or Yuanxiao Festival is eating small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. We call these balls Yuanxiao or Tangyuan. Obviously, they get the name from the festival itself. It is said that the custom of eating Yuanxiao originated during the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the fourth centuty, then became popular during the Tang and Song periods.

The fillings inside the dumplings or Yuansiao are either sweet or salty. Sweet fillings are made of sugar, Walnuts(胡桃), sesame, osmanthus flowers(桂花), rose petals, sweetened tangerine peel, bean paste, or jujube paste(枣泥). A single ingredient or any combination can be used as the filling . The salty variety is filled with minced meat, vegetables or a mixture.

The way to make Yuanxiao also varies between northern and southern China. The usual method followed in southern provinces is to shape the dough of rice flour into balls, make a hole, insert the filling, then close the hole and smooth out the dumpling by rolling it between your hands. In North China, sweet or nonmeat stuffing is the usual ingredient. The fillings are pressed into hardened cores, dipped lightly in water and rolled in a flat basket containing dry glutinous rice flour. A layer of the flour sticks to the filling, which is then again dipped in water and rolled a second time in the rice flour. And so it goes, like rolling a snowball, until the dumpling is the desired size.
回答者: 弦之月NONO - 护国法师 十四级 11-25 13:34
The Festival of Lanterns takes place at the end of the Chinese New Year Celebration, on the fifteenth day of the first moon. Lanterns have been part of Chinese life for centuries so it's not surprising to see a festival of lanterns.
People usually hang lanterns in the gardens, outside the houses, and on the boats. These lanterns are signposts to guide guests and spirits of ancestors to the Lunar celebration. After a sumptuous fifteen-day feast, these lanterns light the way for the spirits back to the world beyond.
Silk, paper and plastic lanterns vary in shape and size and are usually multi-colored. Some are in the shapes of butterflies, birds, flowers, and boats. Other are shaped like dragon, fruit and animal symbols of that year. The most popular type of lantern is the "horse-racing" one, in which figures or animals rotate around the vertical axis of the lantern.

The special food for the Lantern Festival is Yuen Sin or Tong Yuen. These are round dumplings made with sticky rice flour. They can be filled and served as a sweet snack or made plain and cooked in a soup with vegetables, meat and dried shrimp. The round shape of the dumpling is a symbol of wholeness, completeness and unity.
The Lantern Festival is an occasion for families to get together and for everyone--young, old, rich and poor to have fun.

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明朝的GDP世界第一

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没错 明朝时中国的疆域非常大

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那得看事什么时候,鼎盛时期很可能是那样,腐败时期········

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This is not steal stole steal -- the Lantern Festival
Year after year, hand.it HuaGongLiuLu Spring Festival. Meet festival, make the guest to balls, and remembers home sichuan long balls custom to steal.
The Spring Festival is a good time to oversee FB, good wine to threaten stomach good food, as time passes, fat greasy feeling, make some flash light, green vegetables including especially like freshness, appetizing clear bowel. And in the evening in sichuan folklore, dou which balls were ShunShouQianYang to grow crisp green is not steal, instead of picking is cited by the next harvest will honor, sign, the grain and multiply it, surging LiuChu prosperity. In the vast rural areas, the vegetables were also is not as turnip, a few money, if you see is good, cut a few vegetables LianHuaBai (BaoCai), and the family ate enough distinctions of on a few.
Stolen in the black word the memory of childhood is so clear and bring you back to the time tunnel in the 1980s, honorably belonged to a new generation of "wear bell bottoms, international dance" that belongs to, brothers and sisters, with the red scarf fasten running, trendy young us, which means the copycat with where, say what will do.
Spring Festival is a child of heaven: beer and skittles heartily laugh. In his pockets full GanEr HuDou sand GongShao forever, Hand smoke a throw of the ring is "and" jilt gun KouShou do yi for red envelopes, ZouJieChuanHu eat meal "is" around, People mountain people sea dragon dance at play a graph, the street number "LiuLianLiu" (playing); even gun son. After a few village several teams at open-air movies, A month old and offering the youngest ever left, 15 after eating dumplings, even after the Ming "big business, the little dog often pick up the dry what to do what. Wrong, and finally a stimulating and ease activities - stealing.
At night, cold spring drift the light fog. Speaking of the green team have stolen. I hurried to the carry a basket in the eldest brother, Eva Eva behind the neighbor already in three starts the vegetable garden. LianHuaBai, turnip, lettuce above, peas DianEr (fabaceous seedling), also don't tube is green, as seen in. BeiDou useful and helpful linen, useful plastic bag bag (that) there is no handbags are used as, multifarious. Don't open the focal clear and crisp, a dog barking, scaring several timid. After all, is doing to remarry, really guilty. Fortunately, make dumplings, ought to stop playing custom. Midnight when midnight fruit, meat onion inventory victory, a lot of money to buy food without tomorrow. Don't run off shoe, yaomei halfway LiEr MaZi torn trousers son things not monarched to avoid.
Material is not very rich, people enjoy not very good but very satisfied, sitting in the happiness of god, six ships well-off society today, material goods quite rich content of tennis times, people enjoy celebrating She of consumption, and the birth holiday flat sour desalination, lack of sorrow: feast atmosphere, New Year's day, New Year only this.
A field, raising party a certain economic basis of specific local culture. In the era of history in the development, is the essence, can leave. Trees, reform and development era air, today's prosperity and good sight behind some of the most local characteristics of folk custom is declining, in the course of urbanization is forgotten.
Scientific knowledge, violently changed people's life, meet the increasing needs of people at the same time, but in largely destroyed our environment, resources, was unprecedented. Only sighs, because the development of science and technology as an arrow, is beyond the fountain. Think back to the 1980s that valentine's day is coming and rose, chocolate may know for what? A few jins than to ZhuTouRou and lily.
We cannot simply said, not only for good who who take it as a memory storage in history, filled with values of our mind. Should leave here some reflection and exploration, friend, you say?
Problem: keep the key can be added.
Don't use translation software...
The last sentence is obvious

回复:

This is not to steal steal steal --- Green Festival
Mid-new ear, Spring yaer bonus. Welcome to celebrate the festival, A Festive Lantern Festival, for foreign visitors can not help but cherish the memory of his hometown in Sichuan since ancient customs Lantern - Green stole.
Chinese New Year are openly FB good season, good wine cook pose a threat to the stomach, the passage of time, fatty Health flu at first, come up with something light palatability, green vegetables like a Qingquan, Qingchang appetizer. Local Customs in Sichuan Lantern Medium evening, watch the Big Dipper looks tasty side dishes, which took the pick of green not steal, it was pleasure to patronize those who, in the coming year will certainly augur well for crops growing rapidly , six domestic animals thrive. At the vast rural areas, the green vegetables such as radish pickles value also can not some money, if you are to see people's hearts, and chop a few vegetables white lotus (bracteata dish) with gifts, but also enough to eat a few tons of people.
Green stole the term fixed at childhood memories are so clear, time to bring you back to the tunnel before, belong to the glorious eighties a new generation of "wearing bell-bottoms, jump the International Dance" that belong to my brother and sister who are the air, flowing red scarf tied nose of my generation has become avant-garde youth that where with where that on .
Chinese New Year are a paradise for children: Be happy dining. Forever in pockets filled with red sand strictosidine Tiaoxi who has lost his family; hand smoke ring fling it is "thrown artillery abuse" Yireview to make red packets; go Streetate "bush food"; packed plans个watch long playing lion dance, a few"Liu" (even the gun fight child); up several open-air village of a few more teams to watch movies; youngest one day festival on the old life-wen; 15 Lantern had even finished eating the first month, the Ming Dynasty, "a big dog seized small business record" The Sonhave to goson. Mistake, not only have the last exciting and easy activities - stealing Green.
Spring's cold, misty nightfaint. In small groups to steal the Green team has prepared a hair. I carry a basket in a hurry with big brother at the first, threeher neighbor's vegetable garden has been at the start. Lotus white, radish, lettuce, peas transversion infants (latter), and are notgreen, see, like, like mining. Useful back pocket and useful pocket linen and useful plastic pocket (at that time had not handbags) applications have to do there is, all sorts. Busy time of coke can not be open, clear out of the dog barking, immediately scare some timid. After all, are at o do things, indeed a guilty conscience. Fortunately, the customs are PLAYING A Festive Lantern Festival, the only stop before going too far. The middle of the night when three-shift inventory win the fruits of a lot of side dishes, green onions, no money to buy food for tomorrow.do not want to go halfway to take off their shoes, tornLee Asako two things can not be provided free.
Substances are not very rich era, people do not enjoy a good harvest but it is to meet the family, sat at the spacecraft Shenzhou VI, science and technology fairly well-off today, material goods to satisfy a wide range of tennis time, people enjoy celebrating consumption of SHE, followers of Healthholiday tragedy: plain, and the lack of festive atmosphere of New Year every year, just before New Year.
Soil parenting party party people, must create the economic base of one particular local culture. History at forward in the development of time, be able to leave behind is the best. Shu-time new wind of reform and promote development and prosperity of today's great behind the scene, some very unique place is the decline of folk customs in the process of urbanization be forgotten.
Scientific and technological knowledge generated by the driving force, violently changed the lives of contemporary people to meet the growing needs of people at the same time, but at a great extent on the destruction of our environment, resources, is unprecedented. No alternative but to sigh, because the development of technology such as, are unable to devote the manpower ended. Recall the eighties that the advent of Valentine's Day chocolates and roses, you may not know what? COMEnot as good as itand
We can not simply say well who is who, not only as memory, history archive is full of values in our minds. Should have left some here consider and explore, friends, you say that?

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可能

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笃笃* * * * * *蜀蜀chinga丰庞shung

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看什么时期了,明末农民战争消耗国力,加上千年难遇的雪灾,江南暴雪,连满鞑都打不过

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明初的航海的确是有优势的,甚至日本.(可查万历三大征的朝鲜之役)
更不要说再加上正处于高速上升期的部分欧洲国家了,对于火药武器的使用发放也更不上时代,实际上却不然.,就耗掉明朝不少力气,拥有比世界其他地区的文明更多的优势.纵向对比,可是小民和国家却都没能从中得利,明朝的火器其实一直都不处于优势地位.看似很繁荣,在被蒙古帝国洗刷过的土地上建立起来的国家.,根本不能拿来作为强盛的标准..,而一些欧洲国家却在同一时间里大跨度的迈进,明朝很多先进的火药武器技术.

拿很多人都喜欢说的航海和火药武器说说,还是多去看唐朝吧..。
航海.

明朝看似强大.
现在有一些人觉得明朝很强,都来源于西方.

你要是想找找心理安慰...,无论是硬件还是软件都是如此,这个差距在明末已经相当大了,在之后的百年左右的时间里大幅度退步...,可是却有点畸形。
火器,甚至于这种畸形的繁荣导致明朝廷最终被颠覆,在某些方面甚至有停歇和退步..不是.(例如鸟枪).,仅仅是一个日本...
明作为一个接替元的政权,但是这个优势没能保持下去,历史也证明,其实是失去了很多东西的,明朝并不像唐宋时期那样.

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The year by year big fish big meat spend the New Year, from year to year premium Liu3 Lyu4 face early spring.Facing joyful festival, making a rice glue ball is the guest of foreign land and start to can not help think of the long ago rice glue ball custom of home town Sichuan-steal green.
The Chinese New Year is hall but the FB good seasonal changes of Huang, good wine real jam agree with stomach composing threat, as time passes, the greasy feeling suddenly living, make to order a simple elegance and proper and green vegetables of green environmental protection is like a pure spring and open the stomach pure bowel.And rice glue ball in the people's customs people's custom of Sichuan evening, see Dou where the wife and children vegetables grow good to eat and beautifully green take profit by special situation and on behalf take off it don't steal on the whole, is patronized the honor of on the contrary, next year omen the farm goods be necessarily long power fast fierce, produce good, six rear prosperous.In the vast world of village, green vegetables turnip's waiting small vegetables can't also be worth a few money, if is to see your public good, chop down a few green vegetables lotus, the white(Bao vegetables) mutually presents, also enough the families eat up several.
Steal green phrase certainly a space is so clear in the memory of childhood, the tunnel of time takes you to return to previously, the honour belongs to new generation "start to wear a bell-bottom trousers, spring up international dance" for 80 ages that is belong to elder brother's the elder sisterses of proud, flow my generation that the nasal discharge fastens red scarf, became advanced youth of heel fart insect, point to which with go toward where, speak stem what do what.
The Chinese New Year is the heaven of child:Idle away in seeking pleasure heartily carefree.The inside of the wallet fills up a red Tiao pole son sand beard bean forever;Emit smoke in hand one what to throw and then ring be "jilt cannon son" to kowtow to do Yi to beg for to want red envelope;Walk street string what door eat be "turn rice";The huge crowd diagram sees play dragon lion dance, wear street to walk a lane number "Liu3 Lian2 Liu3";(beat to connect gun son)Once making track for several brigades with several villages goes to the open-air cinema;The Wen fiesta old generation son on an old and the young January;15 rice glue balls finish eat to finish lead a January on the whole, the Ming Dynasty"greatly do business to smallly pick up a dog often" should do what the son have to do what son go to.Wrong, also have the last item since stimulate a comfort and ease activity again-steal green.
The early spring is suddenly cold and the Piao rises light fog spirit at the mid-night.35 large groups steal a green troops have already have but delivered.I in a hurry carry heel's rear in eldest brother of a basket for groceries son, two Wa three Was have already started work in the neighbor's kitchen garden son.The lotus white, turnip, Wo bamboo shoot, garden pea Dian son(sprout of bean), also beyond the power to care is to isn't green, see similar to adopt similar.Useful carry on the back Dou, useful linen pocket of, the application of useful plastics pocket(that time didn't°yet hand bag) to the utmost had, multifarious.The favour gets and can't open burnt, 1 clear and crisply barks and sign Ma3 He4 to run a few timid.After all is do to steal the matter that the chicken touches a dog, really guilty.Fortunately make a rice glue ball to play a customs moment, should only proper can but.Midnight midnight a little bit pure victory fruit, small vegetables the big spring onion be a lot of and have never needed tomorrow to spend money to buy vegetables.Don't think Mao, the younger sister runs to take off shoe halfway and Li3 Er4's pock-markseses tear open the matter of trousers son and can't open up to don't need.
Material the inside of not just very abundant age, people heartily enjoy a not very plentiful year but very satisfy of the happiness of family reunion is sit absolute being six airships, science and technology rushes today of middle-class family, the material merchandise very enriches contented tennis ages, people's consumption enjoys the She that the joys celebrate, Tu nodulation day change the woe of flavor:Mild turn, the atmosphere been in need of to observe a festival, year by year spend the New Year, New Year's Day this lead.
A square soil brings up one square person and the certain economic foundation educates one particular place culture.History at forward, the ages can leave in the development of be an essence.Tree ages new breeze, reform Cu development, the greatly good scene back of today's prosperous rich and strong, some pole have the people's customs of place special features folk is decline, is forget in the city turn of the progress.
Science and technology knowledge output motive force, like forty changed the contemporary person's life, satisfy the demand that people increase day by day of in the meantime, but at biggest degree up break our environments, the resources is an unprecedented in history.Can helplessly sigh, because of the development of science and technology if leave the arrows of Xian, is a manpower can't Jie of.Remember to make reference to Valentine's Day to come till 80's with rose chocolate, probably don't know why thing?Return not as a few as come meat and Ci Ba really.
We can't in brief say who good who to, not only chase it as memory, the history seals to exist the inside of the brains that we are full of a value.Should leave some thinkings and investigate here, friend, do you say?

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This is not to steal steal steal --- Green Festival

Mid-大鱼大肉New Year, Spring岁岁bonus柳绿. Welcome to celebrate the festival, A Festive Lantern Festival, for foreign visitors can not help but cherish the memory of his hometown in Sichuan since ancient customs Lantern - Green stole.

Chinese New Year are openly FB good season, good wine cook pose a threat to the stomach, the passage of time, fatty Health flu at first, come up with something light palatability, green vegetables like a Qingquan, Qingchang appetizer. Local Customs in Sichuan Lantern Medium evening, watch the Big Dipper looks tasty side dishes, which took the pick of green顺手牵羊not steal, it was pleasure to patronize those who, in the coming year will certainly augur well for crops growing rapidly五谷丰登, six domestic animals thrive. At the vast rural areas, the green vegetables such as radish pickles value also can not some money, if you are to see people's hearts, and chop a few vegetables white lotus (bracteata dish) with gifts, but also enough to eat a few tons of people.

Green stole the term fixed at childhood memories are so clear, time to bring you back to the tunnel before, belong to the glorious eighties a new generation of "wearing bell-bottoms, jump the International Dance" that belong to my brother and sister who are the air, flowing red scarf tied nose of my generation has become avant-garde youth跟屁虫that where with where that干啥on干啥.

Chinese New Year are a paradise for children: Be happy dining. Forever in pockets filled with red sand strictosidine Tiaoxi who has lost his family; hand smoke ring fling it is "thrown artillery abuse" Yi叩首review to make red packets; go Street串户ate "bush food"; packed plans个watch long playing lion dance, a few穿街走巷"Liu柳莲" (even the gun fight child); up several open-air village of a few more teams to watch movies; youngest one day festival on the old life-wen; 15 Lantern had even finished eating the first month, the Ming Dynasty, "a big dog seized small business record" The Son干啥have to go干啥son. Mistake, not only have the last exciting and easy activities - stealing Green.

Spring's cold, misty night漂起faint. In small groups to steal the Green team has prepared a hair. I carry a basket in a hurry with big brother at the first, three二娃her neighbor's vegetable garden has been at the start. Lotus white, radish, lettuce, peas transversion infants (latter), and are not管不了green, see, like, like mining. Useful back pocket and useful pocket linen and useful plastic pocket (at that time had not handbags) applications have to do there is, all sorts. Busy time of coke can not be open, clear out of the dog barking, immediately scare some timid. After all, are at偷鸡摸狗to do things, indeed a guilty conscience. Fortunately, the customs are PLAYING A Festive Lantern Festival, the only stop before going too far. The middle of the night when three-shift inventory win the fruits of a lot of side dishes, green onions, no money to buy food for tomorrow.幺妹do not want to go halfway to take off their shoes, torn裤儿Lee Asako two things can not be provided free.

Substances are not very rich era, people do not enjoy a good harvest but it is to meet the family, sat at the spacecraft Shenzhou VI, science and technology fairly well-off today, material goods to satisfy a wide range of tennis time, people enjoy celebrating consumption of SHE, followers of Health变味holiday tragedy: plain, and the lack of festive atmosphere of New Year every year, just before New Year.

Soil parenting party party people, must create the economic base of one particular local culture. History at forward in the development of time, be able to leave behind is the best. Shu-time new wind of reform and promote development and prosperity of today's great behind the scene, some very unique place is the decline of folk customs in the process of urbanization be forgotten.

Scientific and technological knowledge generated by the driving force, violently changed the lives of contemporary people to meet the growing needs of people at the same time, but at a great extent on the destruction of our environment, resources, is unprecedented. No alternative but to sigh, because the development of technology such as离弦之箭, are unable to devote the manpower ended. Recall the eighties that the advent of Valentine's Day chocolates and roses, you may not know what? COME几斤not as good as it猪头肉and糍粑.

We can not simply say well who is who, not only as memory, history archive is full of values in our minds. Should have left some here consider and explore, friends, you say that?

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s stitched together that I call '.

Since Europe wasn'。
关于这个话题, spearmen. They could only keep a formation in static mode and thats very vulnerable to mobile cavalry horse archery tactics,所有这些武器也都非常,弓箭手(指的是长弓手和十字弓手),训练有素。. I think Ming would have great advantages during Yongle leadership?
,你是不是指的是这种东西缝在一起的产物, billmen.it takes a chisel point specifically and a direct hit at short range to stand a chance?

IIRC?)

在我的一直以来的印象中。, Agincourt is simplified into '. However the Tutonic Knights in the North and Hungarians in the East were also constantly at war?)
明朝鳞甲的优势是什么,常常会因为特定的对手和地形而改变? Plate armor also would be no protection against the firearms。与其搞这种“vs”比较.not an volley in an arc。例如大炮有较高的开火速度。);s . This could give an great advantages over the Europe army, the most formidable European infantry of the 15th century were the close-packed Swiss pikemen。相对于欧洲,此时欧洲的枪支已经超过了中国.。大炮也被广泛使用, very hard to penetrate,他们还没有训练有素到足以完成这种动作。

Borjigin Ayurbarwada
I do believe that full plate is the best armour, halberdeers etc all heavily armoured) dismounted to fight and used lots of field fortifications to improve their position. In any case the early 15th century no army would make an heavy use of firearms;s;s are neo confucian weaklings。

回复 5楼2011-04-24 16,'.;t such close-packed formations be very vulnerable to massed Ming firearms? would say that leadership would be important here in determining the victory condition, they were cheaper than crossbows almost from the start?
或许中国军队会因为盔甲上的螺丝钉弹了出来而战败, right,已经有了一些深入精彩的讨论。明军训练有素;s。明朝链子甲极其复杂,在这种粗略的简化中?面对火器。

Kenneth (回ls)
That seems more correct!

things I would think of being,十五世纪的明代火器已经达到了欧洲人三十年战争初始时才达到的水平; positive points,法国的士兵有多或少人身穿装甲. And each can take from that info what they will; War,减小武器操作难度和缩短所需的训练周期.,西方的链子甲或是板甲是世界上最好的装甲:那些没有经验而拙劣的士兵无法保证能正确地使用枪支,(英国人)利用长弓就打赢了法国装甲骑兵.

Early 1400',并且在这方面做得很好,也能在短时间内进行远距离的突刺, the emperor'。

Borjigin Ayurbarwada
Not in the early half of the 15th century?

Would the Chinese find their bolts bouncing off plate and defeated,队伍的阵型如何.
早期的枪在开火速度, very hard time penetrating…。

15世纪晚期. handgunners were used both en masse and as skirmish screens, but those are not '?又或者。

而且由于15世纪欧洲还没统一,欧洲的护甲非常,和重型步兵(包括枪兵,也对后世战争的依靠火力范围杀伤对手密集阵形这种战术留下了深刻影响

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1楼2011-04-24 16, inexperienced and lousy soldiers is that they's got the heavy crossbows, most advanced gunpowder technology in the world, I have a hard time seeing any one European state whose army could have beaten a Ming armyThis is around when Europe' War.
明代的优势是什么规模量表(通过你的意思是这类的缝合在一起。尤其是那种只有并不是包裹全身的。大量的雇佣兵也被投入战场. The truth is even at close range a longbow wont pierce plate armour,板甲的防御作用是非常有效的.,这些士兵就会撒腿逃跑…

不仅如此。他们只能在静止不动的时候保持阵型. Ming scales are far more complicated designed and folded than European lamellars。瑞士枪兵在15世纪末才发展到了它的顶峰, European guns have surpassed those of China。而且实验发现. Also large numbers of mercinaries had been involved。事实是。而长弓.
并不是15世纪早期。阿金库尔战役常常被简化成“长弓vs : Ming army is formidable, big charger knights and whatnot, they tend to fire it too early., the arms joints are very vulnearble with the fact that they are chain mail!
我想。
阿金库尔战役发生于1415年的10月25日、弩.
你说的比较正确., crossbows.
There have been some pretty indepth discussions on this subject elsewhere,我很难从中找出一个有可能打败明朝军队的国家出来

回复 3楼2011-04-24 16。在西欧军队服役的男人们(他们都全副武装,南方的匈牙利人也一直处于战争状态中。

回复 2楼2011-04-24 16;t unified in the 15th century,并被综合应用以提高军势。将军们的盔甲里头还穿着丝绸衣服。
All men at arms and most others had horses and could fight mounted if necessary.
瑞士枪兵甚至在引进了火药后.。

最早的火枪是不能穿透它的. That limited the rate of fire would very limited even with rotation,而这使他们很容易受到灵活移动的骑兵的弓箭攻击,都不愿把他们的战斗模式改为利用火药战斗。

TMPikachu
what was the most powerful military power in early 1400 europe,只保护局部的盔甲。不管怎么说, but gunpowder weapons had some other advantages,金属装甲,而如果他们没打中.
好了,因而我实在想象不出欧洲人怎么可能赢. Wouldn'.g cannon had a higher rate of fire。我们每个人都可以搜集一些信息、非常的难以穿透,如果中国和欧洲这时发生冲突。我认为永乐年间的明朝在将领方面有着极大的优势.
是的,被调谐和地形的特殊opponants面对它、枪等等。我很乐意看到能反驳这一条的信息. Again,和欧洲鳞甲相比有更多的折叠设计、卡斯肯尼和一些小国、火力和准确后;impressive',并且所需的相关培训减少后。相对应的则是明朝, archers (the term was used for longbowmwn and crossbowmen。

15世纪早期.
在欧洲.

And this is, France,装备着多种多样的武装):51举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
The Swiss pikemen even after introduction to gunpowder were very reluctant to give up their fighting styles for gunpowder.

And while it may be counter productive to compare two states.。

回复 4楼2011-04-24 16。

Liang Jieming
early guns were no match for the rate of fire。这场战役成为了英国长弓手最辉煌的胜利之一.
战术是多样的. Maybe it has something to do with their effectiveness。

回复 8楼2011-04-24 16,瑞士枪兵在战场上已经完全敌不过火器了,在长弓和板甲的对抗中; far too often,并且能根据这些资料. And Ming chain mail were said to be so intricate that the Katana during the Imjin war makes absolutely no effect on it. And their well trained heavy pollarm users nullify much of the advantage of plate armour especially when its not full plating.

All these weapons had a very,拥有在世界范围内最先进的火器技术,更靠谱地讨论这个问题;吗,手动点燃火药.

late 1400' 。种类繁多的大炮足以炸毁欧洲的骑士阶层,并且能在需要时进行马战?
15世纪早期世界上最强的军事力量是什么;faster to make, excellent training, 戟兵等的重装步兵)都曾活跃于战场之上。15世纪任何一位工匠都会制造手枪,在15世纪, partizanmen(我实在不知道这是什么,对方只有找到一个具体的凿点并且在比较短的距离内直接命中——而不是划出一条凌空弧线——才有可能对对方造成伤害, Gascony:52举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
Perhaps kennth does not have a bad idea;t have much range and required a gunner to manualy ignite the gunpowder which necesitated the use of a bipod:53举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
I think it depends on whether we are talking of the early or late 1400'. Rather than turning into a versus thread we simply turn it into a project of discovering as much about both sides as we can, mostly well armoured and multi armed) and heavy infantry (pikemen。
在这之前。,后者几乎从一开始就比弩便宜,但是火药武器有一些其他的优势。
大部分的战士们都拥有马匹, accuracy and in many cases.
在这段时间里明朝的枪支绝对比欧洲更先进, too much for posts in forums, cannon was already in use by the Ming army at that time, the boggy ground etc。

wlee15
Well the firearms of the time didn'.
我可以告诉你. Ming China then. But partially plated knights have no advantage,在明朝火器力量强弱的问题上,而且后期的trebuchet大炮威力更为强大,
战术非常改变;cool/。这种板甲甚至可以将射来的箭弯向一个最佳角度,不过这种想法让我烦透了, the conditions etc all played their part。,如果必要的话, e, Burgundy.and along with experiments of Longbows versus plate found that the armour is very effective at turning arrows at even an optimum angle,(以当时欧洲各国的现状来看):49举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
Actually it is rather incorrect to say that the longbows won agincourt。明朝鳞甲的工艺要复杂得多, yeah。我认为Liang Jieming他们是正确的, European armor will be very, power and accuracy of gunpowder weapons forced traditional range weapons out of service.板甲”。只有在降低火器的制造成本。不过这些也不是那种“冷静理性/,就是板甲也起不了多大作用。 don'. Add to this were silk undercoats for the generals.

所有战士和其他大多数人可以投入到有马匹和安装。

Daniel
Well, and that bugs me. Not to mention the warlikeness of the first few emperors, with a selection of weapons), the key factor was cost。不用明朝那好战的头几位皇帝.. In Western Europe the men at arms (full plate armour. But the problem with firearms according to Ji Xiao Xin Shu with raw、非常难以穿透这种护甲…,战况会怎么样呢.

What I had in my head。伊斯兰军队从15世纪就采用了这套工艺,大马骑兵等物. In essense Ming infantry were just as missile resistant as Swiss pikemen(which were better armoured than most other European infantrymen)。

ih8eurocentrix
agincourt was a victory of longbowmen over french plate armoured knights so i dont see how the europeans could win
阿金库尔战役中, 钩镰兵?
嗯, though,英军以由步兵弓箭手为主力的军队于此击溃了法国由大批贵族组成的精锐部队. Any valid info to get rid of that feeling would be super., was that the 15th-century Ming firearms were already at the level the Europeans had achieved by the start of the Thirty Years', plate armor, and smaller states, Spears swords etc。大炮被广泛的应用.
Prior to that European infantry can'。

Guest_Conan the destroyer_* (回复说枪有时敌不过箭的那位)
Yes;m seeing a lot of disagreement with me on the issue of the power of the Ming firearms。这样拥挤不堪的阵型难道不是明朝火器的活靶子么。而且?他们如何打仗. and of course. The proportion of French wearing plate, and then they run away when they missed:54举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6

What are the advantages of Ming scale (by scale do you mean the kind that',世界上还没有哪一支军队能将火器大量地应用于战争当中,在决定战争胜败的各种要素中.
当时的火器的杀伤范围不大。所选战场的地面状况等等的各种条件都在发挥作用,也被投入小规模的冲突之中.

Not including that European armor is lighter than what you think it is。

不过也有可能适得其反. Any 14thc smith could make a handgun。. The multi-ple cannons can blow up the European knights of this time,尽管实际上它们以锁链连结。不过只有一部分身体被盔甲保护的骑士在战场上没有什么优势, I',他们总是开火开得太早, and later cannon were also more powerful.

我相信欧洲的板甲如果能包裹全身的话会是最好的盔甲.
英法百年战争的各位参与者都是很强大的.。当然。如果我们能够合理的把它们组织起来。
tadamson
The various participants in the hundred years war were all very powerful;lamellar'.?
欧洲这一方已经发展出了重十字弓, and required less man power than the trebuchet,火器才能够打败长弓和弩,并且会选择自己适用的武器). Islamic armies used these as well from 15th century on. If we organise it right we can get some decent info and discussion.

Is my conception of the level of 15th-century Ming firearms exaggerated.,明朝的优势太大了、刀剑?

IIRC——15世纪最强大的欧洲步兵不过是一群挤在一起的瑞士枪兵。他们既被应用于大规模的武装冲突上: Military has declined,所谓长弓手赢得了阿金库尔战役是一种错误的说法;令人印象深刻”的积极观点啊。根据《纪效新书》的记载:52举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6

I can tell you this、准确性及其他很多方面都敌不过弓箭和弩。

Tactics were very varied and were finely tuned to the particular opponants and terrain faced。。而在30年战争开始之前,长弓依然无法穿透板甲,更容易保养维修,欧洲的护甲绝对轻得超乎你的想象, partizanmen:51举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
The Ming firearms during this time was definitely more advanced than Europe。从根本上说,腐败已经削减了中国军队的效率, the movement of the formations, the longbow, and a gigantic fleet. Only the increasing cheapness of manufacture, easier to maintain,长弓兵同样也是欧洲人:明军超强,将领是其中非常重要的一条,鳞甲可能能便宜. And by the start of the Thirty Years',大多数的盔甲在明军的重武器面前几乎不堪一击?(你用了scale这个词,大部分都盔甲精良,大炮在明朝就被应用于战场了,在火器的制造费用降低。

tadamson (回ls)
In Europe,不如转而探索和了解一下双方军队,皇帝的是在新儒学的熏陶下长大的胆小鬼,枪手需要使用两脚架。

在我的印象中,提高其杀伤范围。即使枪手们轮番上阵、英国,是英法百年战争中著名的以少胜多的战役,沼地战场的地面状况等等的条件都被排除在外了,它们在关节处仍极其脆弱。这或许是因为火药的(杀伤)功效还是差了些;re not maintained properly. lamellar is cheaper/。此外;plate armor is the best in the world, ease of training and increasing range,矛兵,法国。
而中国这边,我称之为的”鳞甲,欧洲的步兵还不能在保持阵型的状态下发起冲锋;t charge in formation,即使很近的距离内.

The first firearms can not penetrate;Longbow vs, they are not disciplined enough to do that? What would a clash of such armies had been like? Or would Europeans be exausted by Chinese mobility and defeated。在亨利五世的率领下, the Swiss pikemen had already proven too vulnerable to firearms to survive on the battlefield. The Swiss pikemen really only developed to its height until the end of that century,最后被中国人打败.。西欧的战士(他们都全副武装。,还有个庞大的舰队,而且会选择自己适用的武器),以至于在Imjin战争中武士刀几乎奈何不了它.
我想说的是,枪兵即使有大量的负重。

回复 7楼2011-04-24 16, 很有可能我们到时会开始比较中国矛兵和欧洲矛兵所受的训练内容,制造所需的时间也短: 军事力量有所下降;t think so, the longbowmen were Europeans too. all seems to be left out of it,我们就可以得到一些有价值的资料,对吗,有很多人都和我的意见不一致。

回复 6楼2011-04-24 16,欧洲人会由于中国军队优良的机动性而疲于奔命.
我认为这取决于我们正在谈论的是15世纪早期的明朝还是晚期的明朝、勃艮第. Plate'。然而北方的条顿骑士, range of bows and crossbows,最关键的因素是成本,需要的人力比投石机要少. The ground chosen as the site for battle:49举报 |

鬼泣忍
掷弹兵6
Well,我所说的lamellar——鳞甲.
实际上, I imagine it would be perfectly possible to compare things such as training recieved by chinese spearmen vs european spearman
Kennth的主意不错,火器使用的难题是,明朝步兵就像瑞士枪兵一样是使用火器弹药作战的部队(他们在盔甲方面做得比欧洲大多数国家都好).,火药才有能力将传统武器挤出历史舞台, England,所能节省的时间也非常有限.
我不这么认为. Plus pikeman can sprint quickly over quite a long distance even with their heavy equipment。那么,为随后在1419年收服了整个诺曼底奠定基础. I think Liang Jieming and others are right that firearms replaced longbows and crossbows more because they were easier to train with and becoming cheaper, corruption has lessened the efficiency of Chinese armies. Cannon were widely used.

Late Medieval warfare is a big subject?)

I have the idea in my head that western chain/, and how did they fight

回复:

中国完败啊,宋朝的时候,中国科技水平是绝对的老大,而到明朝的时候我们的生产力水平等各个方面已经和欧洲差不多,到明朝后期我们就被人家落下了,所以我们会失败的,何况面对当时的各个方面都不如明朝的清兵(准确的说是后金)都能打明朝没商量呢,何况日本加上欧洲呢?

回复:

没错 此时大明国力GDP世界第一 欧洲新航路开辟就是因为对东方的向往
比如说西班牙人在美洲掠夺的金银最后几乎都通过贸易流入中国 那时西方称中国为吸泵
就是疯狂吸取财富的意思

明军此时的火器普及率和火器技术相当高 领先世界 ,李约瑟博士说:“明代海军在历史上可能比任何亚洲国家都出色,甚至同时代的任何欧洲国家,以致所有欧洲国家联合起来,可以说都无法与明代海军匹敌。” 即使是冷兵器的骑兵与步兵也将 骑射为生的 蒙古人赶到了大漠 光是万历年间的对外战争就是全胜 别忘了蒙古西征可是吓坏了全欧的 连不列颠人都作着迎战准备
应该注意的是此时欧洲还在教会的管束下 欧洲还在大分裂呢 德国意大利都没有统一 统一地区的采邑制也决定了欧洲权利不如大明集中 容易割据 所以中世纪欧战不断 全欧的人口加起来还没大明的多
至于日本 这时是室町幕府时期 人口没大明山东行省多吧
国力和军力相对大明来说略胜于无 用一个统一的国家对几个分裂的政权发动战争 结果可想而知
当然这是鼎盛时期的大明 大明衰落后内战忙不赢呢

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